BELLADONNA – It’s More Than a Pretty Woman

Some of history’s most lethal substances were once used for cosmetic purposes—well, at least before their deadly qualities became obvious. Unfortunately, the evolution from cosmetic to murder weapon developed somewhat from an “on the job training” thing!

An example of such commercial carelessness included thallium, which was marketed as a depilatory agent. It effectively removed unwanted hair, but it had a rather severe side effect of killing the person in the process.

Belladonna, known as Atropa belladonna and more commonly called deadly nightshade, is another interesting lethal substance that was popular as a cosmetic throughout history.

In Roman times, diluted eye drops of belladonna dilated the pupils, which was thought to make women more seductive. And if gently rubbed on the cheeks of the face, belladonna produced an intriguing reddish blush. Although these practices have fallen out of favor because they cause dangerous increases in heart rates and possible blindness, there are still commercial products available that contain belladonna.

Deadly nightshade (belladonna) is considered one of the most toxic of plants in the Eastern Hemisphere. All parts of this botanical contain toxic alkaloids. While the roots are the most deadly part, poisonous alkaloids are present throughout the plant.

Scopolamine and hyoscyamine are the main toxins in the plant and these produce extreme delirium and hallucinations. I’ve written about these alkaloids in other blogs (here and here) since they are present in some modern pharmaceuticals used for motion sickness. They have the potential for a serious interaction with alcohol to produce temporary amnesia.

The berries of the belladonna plant create the greatest danger to children since they look as attractive as fruit and have a somewhat sweet taste. Two berries consumed by a child could kill, and it takes about 10 to 20 berries to kill an adult (depending on a person’s body mass).

Adding the berries to food during preparation would make for an interesting method of murder for the mystery writer searching for a simple murder weapon. A more efficient use of this plant, however, would be to use the root or a leaf to murder. It’s been documented that a single leaf of the belladonna plant can be fatal to an adult.

It’s interesting to note, however, that many animals (cattle, horses, rabbits, goats and sheep) can eat the plant without ill effects, but many domestic pets are vulnerable to its toxicity.

Belladonna has been used for centuries in herbal remedies as a pain reliever, a muscle relaxant, for motion sickness and as an anti-inflammatory agent. The US Pharmacopeia still lists the methodology to prepare tincture of belladonna. In medical literature, its indications include use as an antidote for certain poisonings (such as opium and chloroform) and the deadly insecticide parathion.

So, while belladonna might be considered “old school” for deadly poisons, this toxic botanical continues to be in the top 10 list of efficient murder weapons because of its effectiveness, its relative ease of availability and because it discreetly hides in food or drink.

Thoughts? Comments? I’d love to hear them!

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New Vaccine Resembles Space Ice Cream

The methods to deliver vaccines have undergone dramatic changes since the days of the polio vaccine in 1953 when the liquid was dropped onto a sugar cube for dosing. Now vaccines come in a variety of innovative dosing methods other than shots. Skin patches and inhalants are becoming increasingly popular.

One of the more recent medical advances is a dosing method for the rotavirus vaccine, a disease common to developing countries that kills over 200,000 children per year.

While the rotavirus vaccine has been available for some time, a new dosing method for the oral vaccine has become a game-changer—especially in areas of the world that are most affected by this disease.

One of the basic issues to availability of vaccines in developing countries is that the vaccines do not perform well (potency is reduced or negated) when stored at normal environmental temperatures, and many are inactivated when stored in either too cold (frozen) or too warm (desert temperatures).

Scientists have now developed the rotavirus vaccine into a freeze-dried powder that not only has greatly increased stability during storage but makes it easy to transport. The process was developed in India and it involves dipping the vaccine into liquid nitrogen and removing the water with a vacuum. The remaining dry powder becomes a most convenient, easily portable vaccine that is simple to administer.

Freeze-dried rotavirus vaccines now can be safely transported hundreds of kilometers from village to village in rural areas, such as in sub-Saharan Africa. No longer is there a need to consider how this vaccine will be handled and stored in places that lack electricity or traditional health clinics.

The rotavirus disease induces severe gastritis that includes diarrhea, which leads to extreme dehydration and eventually to death. Dehydration is the second leading cause of death in children under five years of age, killing over 760,000 children each year. Stopping rotavirus in its tracks with this more convenient and stable vaccine will greatly and positively impact these staggering statistics.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has documented that since the freeze-dried rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2014, severe cases of rotavirus have been reduced by over sixty percent—a monumental victory over this deadly disease and a medical breakthrough over traditional health barriers worldwide.

Thoughts? Comments? I’d love to hear them!

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BOTULISM – A Paralytic Nerve Toxin

Botulism, as an accidental illness, is rare these days. More sophisticated canning processes and better preservation of food products have prevented this serious neurotoxin from poisoning those in the modern world.

Intentional poisonings, however, are another story. The botulism toxin (called botulinum) is one of the most poisonous substances known to man. It is said to be 10,000 times more deadly than cyanide, and it’s been estimated that a lethal human dose is in the range of two nanograms. That translates to two billionths of a gram (think of a paperclip as weighing one gram). Therefore, deadly doses are not even visible to the naked eye.

There are seven types of botulism, but only three MAIN types. These are:

Food-Borne Botulism – This type of illness usually exhibits symptoms within four to 36 hours after ingesting a contaminated food product. The symptoms include dry mouth, difficulty speaking and swallowing, weakness of the facial muscles, blurred or double vision, drooping eyelids, as well as nausea and vomiting. Eventual respiratory shutdown and general muscle paralysis are the usual the causes of death. It’s good practice NOT to taste test food that may have gone bad.

Wound Botulism – This form of the disease is usually seen with those who inject drugs several times a day, as with people who use heroin. The symptoms and eventual lethal outcome are similar to food-borne botulism.

Infant Botulism – Babies who consume the spores of the bacteria will develop this form of the disease. The spores grow in infant intestines and release the neurotoxin. Honey can contain botulism spores and this is often a source of the disease for infants. Honey should not be fed to babies less than one year of age.

The botulism neurotoxin is produced mainly by Clostridium botulinum bacterium. The neurotoxin is so lethal that it is listed as a potential biological weapon by the United States Department of Defense. Deliberate food-borne botulism has the potential to poison many of the population and is considered a public health risk.

Food-borne botulism is the form often used as a murder weapon and which has the potential to be used as a bio-weapon. The cause of death is usually from suffocation due to respiratory muscle paralysis.

In 2001, a civilian bio-defense group issued a consensus statement regarding the dangers of botulism. The Centers For Disease Control (CDC) has classified this toxin as a Category A Agent because of its potential as a biological agent and the fact that it can be used as either an aerosolized or food-borne weapon.

Botulinum spores are extremely hardy entities. They survive boiling temperatures for over three hours. They are resistant to ultra violet light, irradiation and alcohols. These spores are said to survive in the dry state for over 30 years and can be reactivated by heating them, so storage for future weapon use is not a problem.

The good news is that the spores may be killed by chlorine disinfectants. And about two years ago the FDA approved a botulism antitoxin drug, which is said to neutralize all seven known forms of the disease.

Survival depends on early initiation of treatment with the antitoxin, supportive medical care (such as breathing machine support and stomach pumping) and appropriate antibiotic use. But the recovery process can be lengthy, with assisted ventilation continuing for weeks and even months after the initial symptoms occur.

However, this same neurotoxin, when prepared in dilute concentrations, is used commercially to treat medical and cosmetic conditions. It amazes me, and even boggles my mind, that a substance with such destructive potential can be harnessed and used in beneficial ways.

Thoughts? Comments? I’d love to hear them!

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Visine as a Deadly Poison!

I’ve blogged often about various methods of murder that do NOT involve the spilling of blood, and I’ve discovered yet another weapon that can be used when writing a bloodless death scene—Visine!

Yes, those eye drops that we all use to “get the red out!” Amazingly, a woman was accused of poisoning her boyfriend by adding Visine to his drinking water. She allegedly added a substantial amount to his drinks to get his attention.

The deed was discovered after the boyfriend visited his doctor several times complaining of chronic nausea and vomiting, as well as blood pressure and breathing issues. After traditional treatments failed, physician ordered a blood test and discovered an “extremely high level” of tetrahydrolozine in his blood. Eventually, the girlfriend admitted to spiking his drinking water with Visine.

Tetrahydrolozine is a vasoconstrictor (it shrinks blood vessels) and is the active ingredient in many eye drops and nasal sprays.

When I looked up “tetrahydrolozine poisoning,” I found a term called Visine Prank. One of the symptoms of oral intake of tetrahydrolozine is diarrhea. That certainly would make for an interesting, if not dangerous, prank!

However, oral ingestion of eye drops containing tetrahydrolozine, can cause much more serious side effects than diarrhea. If large quantities are ingested, serious illness and even death can result.

The common side effects are headache, blurred vision (ironic, to say the least), nausea and breathing problems. In extreme cases, seizures and/or a coma could result, with death following closely behind.

Some of the more unusual side effects include low body temperature, tremors, nervousness and irritability. The most unusual side effect listed was blue fingernails and lips, and I think that would make for an interesting discovery by an observant medical examiner in your novel.

To prevent death, aggressive treatment must follow closely after a large ingestion of the substance. Administering laxatives, inducing vomiting, pumping out the stomach and breathing assistance would be the expected treatments.

So, I hope you will do as I’m doing—adding yet another bloodless method of killing to my lengthening list of story plots. At the very least, spiking a character’s drink with eye drops might be an interesting way to take that character “out of commission” for some time.

Thoughts? Comments? I’d love to hear them!

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3D Skin Printing Technology

Some time ago I became fascinated with 3D printing technology. The idea of creating duplicates of an object from a blueprint reminded me of the replicator technology from Star Trek.

I’ve blogged before about the advances in 3D printing for both excellent medical uses, interesting new applications such as printing medications, and in potentially sinister uses with the printing of guns and other lethal weapons.

I read an interesting article recently about the advances in the medical use of 3D printing technology that will one day allow for intricate 3D printing of human tissue. Already there is 3D printing capability for use in various medical treatments. But, so far, most of the capability remains in printing human tissue for laboratory use in pharmaceutical testing and for further study.

The goal of medical 3D printing is to one day have the capability of printing viable human organs. The development of the Biopen, a hand-held 3D printing pen made of medical grade plastic and titanium, allows surgeons to draw personalized stem cells from a human and overlay them onto damaged tissue to heal itself.

The procedure is slow and deliberate, but a simplistic explanation is that a person’s stem cells are used to create a surgical scaffold using a mix of hydrogel and stem cells as the “ink” of the 3D printing pen to begin the tissue regeneration process.

At this point, scientists have been able to achieve a 97% survival rate for the stem cells used to generate human cartilage, but one of the more recent developments is the use of this process to create skin from one’s own stem cells.

This achievement of 3D printing human skin could become a major medical advancement to help patients heal from traumatic injuries, and could become especially significant for burn victims.

Of course, as with many medical advances, there can be both beneficial and ominous outcomes by using such technology. I can imagine that if 3D printing of skin becomes commonplace, our judicial system might no longer trust fingerprint technology to identify those involved in criminal activity. And, certainly, fingerprint security could no longer be trusted as foolproof.

Thoughts? Comments? I’d love to hear them!

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The Scopolamine Patch Nightmare!

Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine and sold as Scopderm Patches, is a powerful drug known in the pharmaceutical world as a tropane alkaloid drug and is classified as an anticholinergic that affects the parasympathetic nervous system. In normal speak, that means (among other things) that the drug dries up secretions and prevents intestinal cramping.

MH900399267Therefore, the drug has many legitimate uses in modern society. In very small doses, the drug is quite effective in treating and preventing motion sickness and is often used as a trans-dermal patch for people traveling the high seas on those beautiful cruise ships. In a more clinical setting, scopolamine is used to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting and to dry up respiratory mucus.

More recently, however, this drug has become an effective tool used by Colombian drug gangs to incapacitate victims and to relieve them of their valuables, their virtue and even their organs while the victim is under the drug’s influence. Last week’s blog highlighted this practice and its growing threat to become a new drug of choice in these unusual criminal acts.

Today, however, I’d like to discuss and warn travelers of the dangers of using aMH900213135 Scopolamine patch in combination with other drugs and alcohol. Scopolamine is a CNS depressant and can cause confusion, hallucinations, delusions, rambling speech and paranoid behavior. When used in conjunction with other central nervous system depressants (such as tranquilizers, antidepressants, and sleeping pills), the dangerous side effects can be exacerbated to a point that a person begins to act irrationally and becomes self-destructive.

Travelers using the scopolamine patch are usually on vacation, and more alcohol than usual is consumed during this time. It would not be unusual for a person to have several drinks before, with and after dinner while wearing a motion sickness patch. A usual side effect would be an enhanced alcoholic effect and even an amnesiac effect.

A person using a scopolamine patch in addition to certain drugs and alcohol RF246527might have no memory of what happened while under the influence. A traveler on a fashionable cruise ship might be embarrassed to learn the next morning that he or she was dancing on the tables the night before and being the life of the party.

I remember a particularly interesting traveler on a cruise I took several years ago. There was a woman that my wife and I played bridge with during the afternoons while at sea. She was very refined and even a bit reserved at the bridge table. In the evenings when my wife and I would go to the night club for some dancing, however, we would see this woman saunter into the club and head straight for the dance floor. Although all alone on the dance floor, she would gyrate her mature hips to the music and cozy up to a pole at one side of the floor and sway in some interesting and suggestive ways.

My wife made a few “Dr. Jekyll-Mr. Hyde” comments about the woman, but I noticed that she was wearing a seasickness patch and had probably enjoyed several glasses of wine with dinner. I’m convinced that she was having a scopolamine-alcohol drug interaction and that the next morning she had no idea that she was the center of attention in the nightclub the night before.

Every afternoon she would return to the bridge table in her usual calm, composed, refined demeanor; but each night, she turned into a woman possessed by music and swaying hips.

So, I leave you with a few words of caution and advice. While preventing motionMB900437803 sickness, also prevent unwanted side effects from occurring by cutting down on alcohol, sleep medications and mood altering drugs. Discuss these possible drug interactions with your doctor before traveling.

Or, you could simply stand by the philosophy that whatever happens on the high seas stays on the high seas!

Thoughts? Comments? I’d love to hear them!

Posted in About James J. Murray, About Medications/Pharmacy, Blog Writers, Blogging, Botanicals That Cure MRSA, Devil's Breath, Drug Misadventures, Drugs and Amnesia, Drugs For Murder Plots, Interesting Murder Weapons, James J. Murray Blog, Killing Off Characters in Your Novel, Methods of Murder, Motion Sickness Drug Patch, Motion Sickness Drugs, Murder Mayhem and Medicine, Murder With Drugs, New Blog, New Methods To Kill Characters in Your Novel, Prescription Drug Safety, Prescription For Murder Blog, Scopderm Patches, Scopolamine Adverse Effects, Scopolamine Drug Interactions, Scopolamine Patches, Sea Sickness Drug Adverse Effects, Sea Sickness Drug Interactions, Sea Sickness Drugs | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

DEVIL’S BREATH – A Dramatic Drug Threat!

Alternately known as the most dangerous drug in the world and the scariest drugMH900448711 in the world, Devil’s Breath is a powerful drug being dealt with on the streets of Colombia, and now in major European cities.

It’s a strong hallucinogenic and an amnesiac. It’s highly addictive and can be deadly. Most importantly, it will only be a matter of time before this drug is making its presence known on the streets of the United States.

Devil’s Breath is usually made into a powder and it comes from the borrachero tree, a article-2143584-130FB037000005DC-752_634x514common tree in Colombia, which blooms with deceptively beautiful white and yellow flowers. The drug is said to be so powerful that within minutes of administration, people turn into zombie-like creatures. The victims remain coherent but become child-like and have no free will.

Colombian drug gangs are using this drug, and the interesting side effects, as an innovative and lucrative new business, and stories of victims of these drug gangs are becoming urban legends.

People have been raped, robbed, forced to empty bank accounts, and even coerced into giving up an organ while under the drug’s influence. The drug is odorless and tasteless and is especially easy to administer either by inhalation or ingestion. In large doses, the drug can lead to death.

An often-used method of administration is that the drug is blown into the face of a passer-by on the street. Within minutes, the victim is under the drug’s influence and loses all42-15655456 capacity for rational thinking. The victim is turned into a complete mental zombie and the memory process of the brain is blocked.

While under the influence, the victim is easily controlled by suggestions and verbal commands to perform unspeakable acts. People have even been known to help robbers steal valuables from the victim’s own home or hotel room.

After the drug wears off, victims have no recollection of what happened, what they did under the influence, and cannot even identify the people responsible for administering the drug in the first place.

Interestingly, in ancient times, the drug was administered to the mistresses of dead Colombian leaders. The women were given the drug, told to enter their master’s grave, and they were simply buried alive and forgotten.

As with many botanical substances that are used for illicit purposes, this chemical also has beneficial uses. In fact, the chemical is marketed in the United States under the name scopolamine and hyoscine. Cruise ship travelers might even use this product in the form of a scopolamine patch for seasickness.

I’ve used this drug in an interesting way to subdue characters in my novel Almost Dead. Almost Dead eBook CoverIn fact, two of the characters who were presumed dead woke up the next morning and returned home—one from the morgue and another from a funeral home. Here’s the Amazon link if interested. It’s gotten mostly five-star reviews. Almost Dead: Available in eBook and paperback.

Next week’s blog will provide some interesting insights into the legitimate use of scopolamine and highlight some of its more entertaining side effects. But, until then, don’t let anyone blow into your face on the streets of Colombia.

Thoughts? Comments? I’d love to hear them!

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